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Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Tyrannidae
  • Polytypic: 5 subspecies
  • Authors: Thomas S. Schulenberg and Guy M. Kirwan


Geographic Variation

Five subspecies of Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum are recognized:

guttatum, described as Todirostrum guttatum Pelzeln 1868; types from Barcelos and Poiares, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil

Occurs from eastern Colombia east to northern Brazil west of the Rio Negro, and south to northern Peru, north of the Amazon River (Traylor 1979).

Differs from nominate chrysocrotaphum by the white chin and by heavier black streaks on the side of the throat and across the breast (Walther 2004).

neglectum, described as Todrirostrum [sic] chrysocrotaphum neglectum Carriker 1932; type locality Huacamayo, Sandia, Puno, Peru

Occurs from eastern Peru south of the Amazon south to central Bolivia (Cochabamba) and east across Brazil south of the Amazon to the east bank of the lower Rio Purús and the west bank of the lower Rio Madeira (Traylor 1979).

Differs from nominate chrysocrotaphum "in having the loral area entirely black; the bill is shorter and proportionately wider; the yellow of the lower parts seems richer, while the olive of the upperparts is more yellowish" (Carriker 1932: 460).

chrysocrotaphum, described as Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum Strickland 1850; type locality Peru.

Occurs in northern Peru on the north bank of the Amazon River in western Loreto, and south of the Amazon in San Martín and Loreto; and in adjacent western Brazil south of the Amazon, east at least to Tefé (Traylor 1979).

See Detailed Description.

simile, described as Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum similis Zimmer 1940; type locality Igarapé Amorin, left bank of Rio Tapajós, Pará, Brazil

Occurs along the west bank of the lower Rio Tapajós, Pará, Brazil (Traylor 1979).

Similar to nominate chrysocrotaphum, "but without malar or pectoral spots and with the yellow superciliary stripe not passing above the orbit but restricted to the supra-auricular region where it involves perceptibly also the upper border of the auriculars; black of the crown less broadly extended over the nape and with less evident yellowish collar between nape and mantle. Pattern of crown and superciliary stripe as in T. c. illigeri of the Pará district which, however, lacks the white loral spot present in similis" (Zimmer 1940: 3).

illigeri, described as T[riccus] Illigeri (Cabanis and Heine 1859); type locality Pará, Brazil; restricted to Belém by Hellmayr (1912)

Occurs in eastern Brazil south of the Amazon, from the east bank of the lower Rio Tapajós east to northern Maranhão (Traylor 1979).

Similar to simile, but lacks the white supraloral spot, and has black streaks on the sides of the throat (Walther 2004).

Related Species

There is no comprehensive phylogeny of TodirostrumTodirostrum chrysocrotaphum forms a superspecies with Todirostrum nigriceps (Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher) and with Todirostrum pictum (Painted Tody-Flycatcher) (Fitzpatrick 1976, Walther 2004); some earlier authors treasted all three as conspecific (e.g. Zimmer 1940).

Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data, from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, indicates that Todirostrum is embedded within a clade of morphologically similar genera: Myiornis, Lophotriccus, Atalotriccus, Oncostoma, Hemitriccus, Poecilotriccus, and Taeniotriccus (Tello and Bates 2007, Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009). The affinities of Todirostrum within this clade are not resolved; Tello and Bates (2007) and Ohlson et al. (2008) both identified Poecilotriccus and Todirostrum as sister taxa, but Tello et al. (2009), who sampled a broader range of taxa, left the affinities of Todirostrum as unresolved.

Recommended Citation

Schulenberg, T. S. and G. M. Kirwan (2013). Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.