Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher forms a superspecies with Painted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum pictum) of the Guianan Shield, and with Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum nigriceps) of northwestern South America and southern Central America. Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher is exclusively found south of the Amazon and the Rio Negro, and occurs from southeast Colombia to northern Bolivia, as well as across Brazil to the state of Maranhão near the mouth of the Amazon. It is usually uncommon, and the species is easily overlooked without familiarity of its vocal repertoire. This bird inhabits both terra firme and seasonally flooded forests, and has been found to at least 1400 m. It is usually found in the canopy, but rarely accompanies flocks; like other Todirostrum it prefers to forage alone or in pairs. The nest is a pendant globular structure, constructed up to 35 m above the ground, but detailed studies of breeding behavior are still required.