Found from Panama’s Canal Zone south to southeast Colombia, the White-headed Wren should present few identification problems. The entire head and most of the underparts are white, whilst the upperparts are mainly blackish brown, sometimes with a few white feathers on the shoulder region. Three subspecies are generally recognized, but the southernmost of these, Campylorhynchus albobrunneus aenigmaticus, is speculated to be hybrid between White-headed Wren and Band-backed Wren (Campylorhynchus zonatus). It inhabits humid forest from sea level to about 1500 m, and seems to specialize in foraging within epiphytes, searching for invertebrates. White-headed Wrens are usually observed in small groups, in common with several congenerics.