White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Pipridae
  • Polytypic: 15 subspecies
  • Authors: Lindsey Tu, Casey McCabe, and Wendy Tori


Geographic Variation

Up to 15 subspecies recognized, but "many subspecies are only weakly distinguished and very few, if any, can be reliably separated in female plumage" (Kirwan and Green 2011: 222).

abditivus, described as Manacus manacus abditivus Bangs 1899; type locality Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

Occurs in northern Colombia in the lower Cauca and Magdalena valleys and near the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Snow 1979).

flaveolus, described as Manacus flaveolus Cassin 1851; type locality "Bogotá", Colombia; restricted to Honda, Magdalena Valley, Tolima, Colombia by Snow (179: 262).

Occurs in the upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia (Snow 1979).

bangsi, described as Manacus manacus bangsi Chapman 1914; type locality Barbacoas, Nariño, Colombia

Occurs in southwestern Colombia and northwestern Ecuador (Snow 1979).

leucochlamys, described as Manacus manacus leucochlamys Chapman 1914; type locality Esmeraldas, Ecuador

Occurs in western Ecuador, from southwestern Ecuador south to Guayas (Snow 1979).

Probably should be synonymized with bangsi (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a, Kirwan and Green 2011).

maximus, described as Manacus manacus maximus Chapman 1924; type locality Alamor, Loja, Ecuador

Occurs in southwestern Ecuador in El Oro and western Loja and extreme northwestern Peru in Tumbes (Snow 1979, Wiedenfeld et al. 1985).

Probably should be synonymized with bangsi (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a, Kirwan and Green 2011).

interior, described as Manacus manacus interior Chapman 1914; type locality Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia

Occurs from eastern Colombia south to north central Peru and east to Venezuela and northwestern Brazil (Snow 1979).

trinitatis, described as Chiromachaeris manacus trinitatis (Hartert 1912); type locality Chaguaramas, Trinidad

Occurs on Trinidad (Snow 1979).

umbrosus, described as Manacus manacus umbrosus Friedmann 1944; type locality Cerro Yapacana, Amazonas, Venezuela

Occurs in central Amazonas, southern Venezuela (Snow 1979).

manacus, described as [Pipra] manacus (Linnaeus 1766); type locality Surinam and Cayenne

Occurs from southern Venezuela east to the Guianas and northeastern Brazil (Snow 1979).

expectatus, described as Manacus manacus expectatus Gyldenstolpe 1941; type locality João Pessôa, left bank of Rio Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil

Occurs in east central Peru and in western Brazil (Snow 1979, Schulenberg et al. 2010).

subpurus, described as Manacus manacus subpurus Cherrie and Reichenberger 1923; type locality Tapirapoan, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Occurs in south central Brazil, from southeastern Amazonas to Rondônia and northwestern Mato Grosso (Snow 1979).

purus, described as Manacus manacus purus Bangs 1899; type locality Santarém, Brazil

Occurs in central Brazil south of the Amazon, from the east bank of the Rio Madeira to the east bank of the Rio Tapajós (Snow 1979).

longibarbatus, described as Manacus manacus longibarbatus Zimmer 1936; type locality Tapará, Rio Xingu, Brazil

Occurs in Brazil south of the Amazon, from the east bank of the Rio Xingu to the east bank of the Rio Tocantins (Snow 1979).

"Combining certain characters of manacus and purissiumus but with a longer 'chin-beard' than either. White area on mantle broader and purer white than in manacus and the black portion of the back correspondingly narrower, the gray of the rump averaging somewhat broader. White area of the upper wing-coverts more extensive than in manacus, involving broadly the subterminal parts of the median series or even sometimes the greater series. Wing-tip shorter than in purissimus and with the outer primaries proportionately more slender; length of wing correspondingly shorter. Lower belly and thighs grayer, less whitish than in purissimus, though not so dark as in manacus, equaling purus in this respect" (Zimmer 1936: 19). Not recognized by Pinto (1944).

purissimus, described as Manacus manacus purissimus Todd 1928; type locality Benevides, Pará, Brazil

Occurs in eastern Brazil from the east bank of the Rio Tocantins east to northern Maranhão (Snow 1979).

gutturosus, described as Pipra gutturosa (Desmarest 1806); no type locality given, restricted to Rio de Janeiro by Pinto 1944: 92

Occurs in eastern Brazil (Alagoas south to Paraná), southeastern Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina (Snow 1979).

Related Species

All four of the currently recognized species of Manacus are similar to one another. They have been treated as a single species (e.g., Snow 1979) or as a superspecies with up to four species (e.g. Snow 2004). A further complication is that the current conception of Manacus manacus is paraphyletic: populations of manacus west of the Andes are phylogenetically closer to Manacus vitellinus (Golden-collared Manakin) than they are to populations of manacus east of the Andes (Brumfield and Braun 2001, Brumfield et al. 2001). Assuming that more than one species of Manacus should be recognized, this paraphyly of manacus suggests that either the manacus populations west of the Andes should be recognized as a species separate from those east of the Andes, or that the trans-Andean populations of manacus should beclassified as a subspecies of Manacus vitellinus (Kirwan and Green 2011).

Taxa of Manacus often hybridize where their ranges abut (with the exception of Manacus aurantiacus Orange-collared Manakin, the distribution of which is completely allopatric to all other taxa of Manacus). Manacus manacus hydridizes with Manacus vitellinus in the central Cauca valley in Colombia (Haffer 1967). The two taxa also meet in southwestern Colombia in Cauca, where both have been collected (Olivares 1958) and a specimen intermediate between the two was collected in nearby northwestern Ecuador (Hellmayr 1929: 70).

More surprisingly, single hybrids also are reported between Manacus manacus and Pipra filicauda (Wire-tailed Manakin) (Gyldenstolpe 1951) and between Manacus manacus and Pipra erythrocephala (Golden-headed Manakin) (Hellmayr 1929: 75, Sibley 1957, Parkes 1961).

Phylogenetic relationships of the genera within Pipridae remain unresolved. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes have not yet yielded consensus on the affinities of Manacus within Pipridae (Rego et al. 2007, Tello et al. 2009, McKay et al. 2010).

Recommended Citation

Tu, L., C. McCabe, and W. Tori (2013). White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.