The White-browed Guan is endemic to the Caatinga biome of northeast Brazil, where it ranges from Ceará south locally as far as northeast Minas Gerais. The species is found in a variety of forest types from dry caatinga to coastal restinga, and from sea level to approximately 1000 m. It usually prefers taller vegetation. Within the species’ range, there is no other similar-sized blackish-brown guan, with its most striking feature being the white supercilium. Its ecology is poorly known and little has been published. However, the White-browed Guan is typically encountered in pairs or small groups of up to six birds, which are usually rather shy, presumably due to prevailing hunting pressure (the species’ range encompasses one of the poorest regions of Brazil). As a result of this and a perceived rapid population decline brought about through habitat loss, the White-browed Guan is presently classified as Vulnerable.