Long considered to be endemic to northwest Peru, the beautiful Tumbes Tyrant has recently been discovered in extreme southwest Ecuador. It inhabits arid woodland, especially Acacia or Prosopis, and is often found in close proximity to old watercourses. Usually found in the lowlands, it does occasionally reach elevations as high as 1000 m, provided there is suitable habitat (although these might also reflect elevational migrations). The Tumbes Tyrant can hardly be mistaken within its small range and habitat; the underparts and supercilium are yellow, the upperparts mainly olive-green, and there are double white wing bars, whilst the tail is largely dark with narrow white ‘sides’. Its behavior recalls an arboreal wagtail, on account of its regular tail-fanning and wagging movements, and the Tumbes Tyrant is usually rather confiding.