Notice for readers: On March 31, Neotropical Birds will be integrated into the new Birds of the World, a powerful research database offering species accounts for every species on earth. Learn more at While Birds of the World is a subscription service, we remain committed to offering this content to Neotropical Birds contributors and to those unable to pay for it through our scholarship program. Stay tuned.

Tropical Parula Setophaga pitiayumi



Conservation Status

It's a species of Least Concern globally, and it is believed that their populations are stable. In Mexico, the Islas Marias populations (P. pitiayumi insularis) are in danger of extinction, and Socorro Island populations (P. pitiayumi graysoni) are under special protection. Potential risk factors for this species include loss and degradation of habitat, pesticide use and nest parasitism (by Molothrus ater). In addition, the epiphytes used as a nesting substrate are sensitive to air pollution, which may adversely affect the reproductive success of the species. Studies are needed about its ecology, reproductive biology and food, to promote conservation.

Effects of human activity on populations

Information needed. Contribute

Recommended Citation

Tropical Parula (Setophaga pitiayumi), In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: