Toucan Barbet Semnornis ramphastinus

  • Order: Piciformes
  • Family: Semnornithidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Christina Rueda, Ana MarĂ­a Pardo, and Aura Viviana Buitrago


Barker, F.K., and S.M. Lanyon. 2000. The impact of parsimony weighting schemes on inferred relationships among toucans and Neotropical barbets (Aves: Piciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15: 215-234.

BirdLife International. 2013. Species factsheet: Toucan Barbet Semnornis ramphastinus. Downloaded from BirdLife International on 8 October 2013.

Buckio, B. 2011. Prong-billed Barbet (Semnornis frantzii). T.S. Schulenberg (editor), Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Dinerstein, E., D.M. Olson, D.J. Graham, A.L. Webster, S.A. Primm,M.P. Bookbinder, and G. Ledec. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Donegan, T.M., and L.M. Dávalos. 1999. Ornithological observations from Reserva Natural Tambito, Cauca, south-west Colombia. Cotinga 12: 48-55.

Freile, J.F., and J.A. Chaves. 2004. Interesting distributional records and notes on the biology of bird species from a cloud forest reserve in north-west Ecuador. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 6-16.

Gyldenstolpe, N. 1933. On some new or rare birds chiefly from South-western Colombia. Arkiv för Zoologi 33(6): 1-17.

Hilty, S.L., and W.L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Jardine, W. 1855. [description of Tetragonops ramphastinus]. The Edinburgh new philosophical journal (new series) 2: 404.

Jetz, W., and D. Rubenstein. 2011. Environmental uncertainty and the global biogeography of cooperative breeding in birds. Current Biology 21: 72-78.

Lanyon, S.M, and J.G. Hall. 1994. Reexamination of barbet monophyly using mitochondrial-dna sequence data. Auk 111: 389-397.

Maddison, D. R. and K.-S. Schulz (eds.) (2007). The Tree of Life Web Project. Taken October 13, 2013 from

McMullan, M., A. Quevedo, and T.M. Donegan. 2011. Guía de campo de las aves de Colombia. ProAves, Bogotá, Colombia.

Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1949. The birds of the Republic of Colombia. Segunda entrada. Accipitridae-Picidae. Caldasia 5: 381-644.

Miller, A.H. 1963. Seasonal activity and ecology of the avifauna of an American equatorial cloud forest. University of California Publications in Zoology 66: 1-178.

Moyle, R.G. 2004. Phylogenetics of barbets (Aves: Piciformes) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30:187-200.

Patané, J.S., J.D. Weckstein, A. Aleixo, and J.M. Bates. 2009. Evolutionary history of Ramphastos toucans: molecular phylogenetics, temporal diversification, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 923-934.

Patel, S., J.D. Weckstein, J.S.L. Patané, J.M. Bates, and A. Aleixo. 2011. Temporal and spatial diversification of Pteroglossus araçaris (AVES: Ramphastidae) in the neotropics: constant rate of diversification does not support an increase in radiation during the Pleistocene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 58: 105-115.

Prum, R.O. 1988. Phylogenetic interrelationships of the barbets (Aves: Capitonidae) and toucans (Aves: Ramphastidae) based on morphology with comparisons to DNA-DNA hybridization. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 92: 313-343.

Remsen, J.V., Jr., C.D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J.F. Pacheco, J. Pérez-Emán, M.B. Robbins, F.G. Stiles, D.F. Stotz, and K.J. Zimmer. Version of 27 October 2013. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union.

Renjifo, L.M., A.M. Franco-Maya, J.D. Amaya-Espinel, G.H. Kattan, and B. López-Lanús (editors). 2002. Libro Rojo de Aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá, Colombia.

Restrepo, C. 1990. Ecology and cooperative breeding in a frugivorous bird, Toucan Barbets. M.S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville. [not seen; cited by Resrepo and Mondragón 1998 and Short and Horne 2001]

Restrepo, C., and M.L. Mondragón. 1998. Cooperative breeding in the frugivorous Toucan Barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus). Auk 115: 4-15.

Ridgely, R.S., and P.J. Greenfield. 2001a. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution, and taxonomy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Ridgely, R.S., and P.J. Greenfield. 2001b. The birds of Ecuador: field guide. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Short, L., and J.F. Horne. 2001. Toucans, barbets, and honeyguides: Ramphastidae, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae. Oxford University Press., Oxford, United Kingbom, and New York, New York.

Short, L., and J.F. Horne. 2002. Family Capitonidae (barbets). Pages 140-219 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 7. Lynx Editions, Barcelona.

Sibley, C.G., and J.E. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Skutch, A.F. 1961. Helpers among birds. Condor 63: 198-226.

Recommended Citation

Rueda, C., A. M. Pardo, and A. V. Buitrago (2014). Toucan Barbet (Semnornis ramphastinus), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.