Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco

  • Order: Piciformes
  • Family: Ramphastidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Carolyn W. Sedgwick


Distribution of the Toco Toucan
eBird range map for Toco Toucan

Generated from eBird observations (Year-Round, 1900-present)

Distribution in the Americas

Toco Toucans occur from the Guianas and northern Brazil in Rio Branco southeast to the mouth of the Amazon, and upstream to eastern Amazonas (vicinity of Manaus). The distribution continues east to coastal Maranhao, then south to the interior of Piauí and Bahia southwest to southwestern Brazil, Bolivia, and extreme southeastern Peru (Pampas de Heath). The southern limits to the distribution are in northwestern (Tucuman) and northeastern (Santa Fe, Corrientes) Argentina.

The Toco Toucan usually is considered to be resident, but occasionally engages in mass movements (Sick 1993). These probably are not migrations, but nomadic movements in search of food.

Distribution outside the Americas

Limited to South America.


Unlike other toucans, Toco Toucans are not prevalent in closed-canopy forests. Instead, they inhabit gallery forests, interior savannas, palm groves, forest edges near rivers and coastal areas, forest patches, open woodlands, secondary forest, chaco, vegetated islands, plantations, scrub,  or orchards.

Historical changes

Little information. The range may be expanding in Amazonia, following deforestation (Short and Horne 2001).

Fossil history

No information.

Recommended Citation

Sedgwick, C. W. (2010). Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.