In The Bahamas, occurs on all the islands and cays (Cory 1891a, b, c; Mayr 1953; Norton 1993; Radabaugh 1974; Riley 1905; Williams and Bunkley-Williams 1999).
In the Turks and Caicos, found only on the Caicos (recorded on West Caicos, Providenciales, Bay Cay, Water Cay, Pine Cay, Parrot Cay, North Caicos, Middle Caicos, East Caicos, and South Caicos) (Buden 1985).
In the Cayman Islands, currently found on Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac; was more common on Cayman Brac (Olson et al 1981).
In Haiti, only known from Tortuga Island [Ile de la Tortue], and described as abundant (Bond 1928).
In Cuba, first recorded on Paredon Grande Key [Cayo Paredon Grande] in 1989 where they were very vocal (Kirkconnell and Garrido 1991). In 1979, a group of 8 was seen foraging quietly on the river Sierra Morena (north coast of the [former] Las Villas Province); another quietly foraging group was seen on Cayo Cinco Leguas (north of Matanzas Province) (Kirkconnell and Garrido 1991). The authors argued that these were not White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus), as that species is not known to join flocks in the winter; however, even hatch-year Thick-billed Vireos are very territorial and are also not known to appear in groups (personal observations). Wallace et al (1999) argue that the observations of those two groups (Sierra Morena and Cayo Cinco Leguas) should not be considered confirmed sightings of Thick-billed Vireos, despite the inclusion in AOU (1998) of it being a rare winter resident in the "northern cays off the Cuban mainland" and by Raffaele et al (1998) as being "an umcommon migrant in north-central Cuba during October". Breeding has been confirmed on Cayo Paredon Grande in 1997 (Wallace et al. 1998). Their presence was confirmed in Cayo Coco in the winter of 1996, and it was suspected that these individuals dispersed from Cayo Paredon Grande (Wallace et al 1998).
On Providencia, this species was described as common and was heard singing (Russell et al 1979), though it does not have a variable song like the other subspecies. It was described as abundant on Providencia but absent from San Andres (Tye and Tye 1991), yet was included on San Andres in Hilty and Brown (1986). It is hypothesized that this subspecies is actually a race of Mangrove Vireo (Vireo pallens) (Kirkconnell and Garrido 1991).
Thick-billed Vireo is a vagrant to the United States. Three individuals were definitively recorded on Hypoluxo Island (Palm Beach County, Florida) in 1989 (Smith et al. 1990). Previous to this, there were five other reports of this species in Florida but these were not considered definitive (see Smith et al. 1990). It is unknown where these individuals came from; it is not thought they bred in Florida. Another sighting was recorded in October of 2004 on Boot Key (Monroe County, Florida) (Greenlaw 2005). An adult was banded 7 November 2005 at Bill Baggs Cape Florida SP (Miami-Dade County) (Greenlaw and Kratter 2007). Another individual was reported at Crandon Park (Miami-Dade County, Florida) on 13 November 2010 (Kratter 2012).