Although widespread, Tawny-throated Leaftosser is uncommon in many regions. It forages solitarily or in pairs on the ground and is typically not associated with understory flocks. It is found in the interior humid forest, where it actively flips leaves in search of invertebrate prey. Like other species of leaftossers, it is secretive and most frequently found when heard or flushed. Tawny-throated Leaftosser commonly gives a high-pitched call or a descending, clear, whistled song that varies by population. When flushed, this leaftosser alights nearby and on a low perch. This species is similar in appearance to Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis) and the two species are sympatric locally in Amazonia. The two differ in a number of ways, with Tawny-throated possessing a longer, slightly downcurved bill, as well as a buffy chin that blends into a rufous breast and dark brown belly. These species are best distinguished by voice, with Short-billed Leaftosser's song being a more rapid, fluid series of high-pitched downslurred whistles. Tawny-throated Leaftosser nests in burrows dug into exposed embankments.