This Atlantic Forest endemic is found in humid tropical forest from sea level to at least 1500 m, in southeast Brazil to extreme northeast Argentina, and easternmost Paraguay. Generally similar in plumage to the much more widespread Spectacled Owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata), the head and upperparts are largely dark brown, contrasting markedly with the broad buffish-white facial markings, and buffy-orange underparts. The Tawny-browed Owl, like its congenerics, is usually found in pairs, which frequently duet, giving low, descending calls that accelerate towards their end. This owl feeds on birds and large insects, as well as small mammals, and is primarily nocturnal, although they may be active by late afternoon. However, very little is known concerning this species’ breeding behavior.