Southern Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes eximius

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Tyrannidae
  • Monotypic
  • Authors: Vinicius R. Tonetti and Marco A. Pizo


Geographic Variation

Phylloscartes eximius is monotypic. There are no studies of the population structure of this species.

Related Species

Described as Muscicapa eximia Temminck 1822; type from Ipanema, São Paulo (Hellmayr 1927).

This is the type species for the genus Pogonotriccus Cabanis and Heine 1859, and for many years was classified in that genus (e.g. Hellmayr 1927, Pinto 1944, Meyer de Schauensee 1966). Other species formerly included in Pogonotriccus, and to which eximius presumably is most closely related, are Variegated Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes poecilotis, Chapman's Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes chapmani, Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes ophthalmicus, Venezuelan Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes venezuelanus, Antioquia Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes lanyoni, and Spectacled Bristle-Tyrant Phylloscartes orbitalis. Traylor (1977, 1979) found no morphological differences between Pogonotriccus and Phylloscartes, and so merged these two genera. Behaviorally, however, these two groups are very different: species of the Pogonotriccus group have more upright posture, do not cock the tail, and are less active when foraging, perching for longer periods before sallying after prey, while "true" Phylloscartes are more active foragers, with a horizontal (warbler-like) posture, and frequently cock the tail; and bristle-tyrants (formerly the genus Pogonotriccus). Consequently, some authors continue to recognize Pogonotriccus as a separate genus (e.g., Graves 1988, Fitzpatrick 2004, Ridgely and Tudor 2009). Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data, from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, confirms that species of Phylloscartes and "Pogonotriccus" constitute a single clade, but too few taxa yet have been included in these studies to reveal whether the species of "Pogonotriccus" form a monophyletic unit (Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009).

Recommended Citation

Tonetti, V. R. and M. A. Pizo (2019). Southern Bristle-Tyrant (Phylloscartes eximius), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.