Short-tailed Antthrush displays a near-perfect example of a circum-Amazonian distribution. It is found in the foothills of the Andes and related mountain ranges from northern Venezuela south to northern Bolivia, with disjunct populations in the Pantepui region of southern Venezuela and adjacent Guyana, as well as in the lowlands of the Atlantic Forest region in southeast Brazil and adjacent northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay, before reappearing finally in the isolated upland forests of extreme northeastern Brazil. As many as 12 subspecies have been recognized, and these might be split into four different species, although conclusive evidence for such an approach is, to date, lacking. All of the different populations conform to the same basic plumage pattern: warm earth brown above and off white below with bold dark chevron shaped markings, and a short whitish supercilium. The behavior of Short-tailed Antthrush is typical of the genus, spending most time walking quietly on the forest floor searching for food, but usually singing from a perch above the ground.