Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Thraupidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Allan Obando, Casey H. Richart, and Kevin J. Burns


Ayerbe-Quiñones, F., J. P. López-Ordóñez, M. F. González-Rojas, F. A. Estela, M. B. Ramírez-Burbano, J. V. Sandoval-Sierra, and L. G. Gómez-Bernal. 2008. Aves del departamento del Cauca, Colombia. Biota Colombiana 9: 77–132.

Bangs, O. 1907. On a collection of birds from western Costa Rica. Auk 24: 287–312.

Bangs, O. 1908. Notes on birds from western Colombia. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 21: 157-161.

Beecher, W. J. 1951. Convergence in the Coerebidae. Wilson Bulletin 63: 274–287.

BirdLife International. 2017. Species factsheet: Scarlet-thighed Dacnis Dacnis venusta. Downloaded from BirdLife International on 24 September 2017.

Boucard, A. 1878. On birds collected in Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 46: 37–71.

Boyle, W. A., and B. J. Sigel. 2015. Ongoing changes in the avifauna of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica: twenty-three years of Christmas Bird Counts. Biological Conservation 188: 11–21.

Bronstein, J. L., and K. Hoffmann. 1987. Spatial and temporal variation in frugivory at a Neotropical fig, Ficus pertusa. Oikos 49: 261–268.

Burns, K. J., S. J. Hackett, and N. K. Klein. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical honeycreepers and the evolution of feeding morphology. Journal of Avian Biology 34: 360–370.

Burns, K. J., and A. J. Shultz. 2012. Widespread cryptic dichromatism and ultraviolet reflectance in the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds: implications of accounting for avian vision in the study of plumage evolution. Auk 129: 211–221.

Burns, K. J., A. J. Shultz, P. O. Title, N. A. Mason, F. K. Barker, J. Klicka, S. M. Lanyon, and I. J. Lovette. 2014. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75: 41–77.

Burns, K. J., P. Unitt, and N. A. Mason. 2016. A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes). Zootaxa 4088: 329–354. 10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2

Buskirk, W. H. 1976. Social systems in a tropical forest avifauna. American Naturalist 110: 293–310.

Carman, E. M., and D. Martínez. 2004. Primer registro de Molothrus bonariensis, Icteridae (Chamón Parásito) en Costa Rica. Zeledonia 8: 36.

Carriker Jr, M. A. 1910. An annotated list of the birds of Costa Rica, including Cocos Island. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 6: 314–915.

Cassin, J. 1864. Notes of an examination of the birds of the subfamily Coerebinæ. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 16: 265–275.

Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015. Downloaded from

Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Pages 49-84 in P. A. Buckley, M. S. Foster, E. S. Morton, R. S. Ridgely, and F. G. Buckley (editors), Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological Monographs number 36.

Cuervo, A. M., T. M. Donegan, C. E. González, J. M. Ochoa, J. L. Toro, and P. G. W. Salaman. 1999. Rapid biodiversity assessments and conservation evaluations in the Colombian Andes: northeast Antioquia and highlands of Serranía de los Churumbelos. Available at

Daily, G. C., and P. R. Ehrlich. 1994. Influence of social status on individual foraging and community structure in a bird guild. Oecologia 100: 153–165.

de Juana, A., J. del Hoyo, M. Fernández-Cruz, X. Ferrer, R. Sáez-Royuela, and J. Sargatal. 2012. Nombres en castellano de las aves del mundo recomendados por la Sociedad Española de Ornitología. Ardeola 1: 157–166.

Dibala, R. 2007. Avifaunal diversity in various habitat types in a Costa Rican montane cloud forest with the implementation of CyberTracker.

Dickinson, E.C., and L. Christidis (editors). 2014. The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world. Fourth edition. Volume 2. Aves Press , Eastbourne, United Kingdom.

eBird. 2012. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Accessed 24 September 2017.

Garrigues, R., and R. Dean. 2007. The birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Granizo, T., C. Pacheco, M. B. Ribadeneira, M. Guerrero, and L. Suárez. 2002. Libro rojo de las aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE, Quito, Ecuador.

Greenberg, R. 1981. Frugivory in some migrant tropical forest wood warblers. Biotropica 13: 215–223.

Greenberg, R., and J. Gradwohl. 1980. Leaf surface specializations of birds and arthropods in a Panamanian forest. Oecologia 46: 115–124.

Guido Granados, I., and C. Rodríguez Arias. 2013. Lista actualizada de las especies de aves de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes y su área de amortiguamiento. Brenesia 80: 40–58.

Haffer, J. 1967. On birds from the northern Chocó region, NW-Colombia. Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München 11: 123–149.

Haffer, J. 1975. Avifauna of northwestern Colombia, South America. Bonner Zoologische Monographien 7: 1–182.

Hartman, F. A. 1961. Locomotor mechanisms of birds. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 143: 1–91.

Hartman, F. A., and K. A. Brownell. 1961. Adrenal and thyroid weights in birds. Auk 78: 397–422.

Hartman, F. A., and M. A. Lessler 1963. Erythrocyte measurements in birds. Auk 80: 467–473.

Hellmayr, C. E. 1911. A contribution to the ornithology of western Colombia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 81: 1084–1213.

Hellmayr, C. E. 1929. A contribution to the ornithology of northeastern Brazil. Field Museum of Natural History Zoological Series 12: 235-501.

Hellmayr, C. E. 1935. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Part VIII. Field Museum of Natural History Zoological Series volume 13, part 8.

Hilty, S. L. 1997. Seasonal distribution of birds at a cloud-forest locality, the Anchicayá Valley, in western Colombia. Pages 321-343 in J.V. Remsen, Jr. (editor), Studies in Neotropical ornithology honoring Ted Parker. Ornithological Monographs number 48.

Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (Tanagers). Pages 46-329 in J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and D. A. Christie (editors), Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 16. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Hilty, S. L., and W. L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Iseli Troya, A. E., and M. A. Proaño Freire. 2012. Propuesta de mejoramiento e implementación de nuevos servicios de recreación turística en el bosque protector “la perla”, ubicado en el cantón la concordia, provincia de Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. Bachelor thesis. Universidad de las Américas, Quito.

Isler M. L., and P. R. Isler. 1987. The tanagers. Second edition. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Jahn, O. 2011. Birds and mammals as indicators for the conservation status of tropical forests in the Ecuadorian Chocó. Pages 169-184 in K.-L. Schuchman (editor), Tropical vertebrates in a changing world. Bonner zoologische Monographien 57. Bonn, Germany.

Jobling, J. A. 2010. Helm dictionary of scientific bird names. Christopher Helm Publications, London.

Karr, J. R., S. K. Robinson, J. G. Blake, and R. O. Bierregaard Jr. 1990. Birds of four Neotropical forests. Pages 237-269 in A. H. Gentry (editor), Four Neotropical rainforests. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut and London, pp. 237–269.

Lawrence, G. N. 1862. Catalogue of a collection of birds, made in New Grenada, by James McLeannan, Esq., of New York, with notes and descriptions of new species. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 7: 461-479.

Leck, C. F. 1979. Avian extinctions in an isolated tropical wet-forest preserve, Ecuador. Auk 96: 343–352.

Lindell, C., and M. Smith. 2003. Nesting bird species in sun coffee, pasture, and understory forest in southern Costa Rica. Biodiversity & Conservation 12: 423–440.

Martínez-Sánchez, J. C., L. Chavarría-Duriaux, and F. J. Muñoz. 2014. A guide to the birds of Nicaragua. Westarp & Partner Digitaldruck, Hohenwarsleben, Germany.

Meyer de Schauensee, R. M. 1951. The birds of the Republic of Colombia: their distribution and keys for their identification. Caldasia 5: 873–112.

Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1964. The birds of Colombia and adjacent areas of south and Central America. Livingston Publishing Company, Narberth, Pennsylvania.

Moermond, T. C., and J. S. Denslow. 1985. Neotropical avian frugivores: patterns of behavior, morphology, and nutrition, with consequences for fruit selection. Pages 865-897 in P. A. Buckley, M. S. Foster, E. S. Morton, R. S. Ridgely, and F. G. Buckley (editors), Neotropical Ornithology. Ornithological Monographs number 36.

Nadkarni, N. M. 1988. Tropical rainforest ecology from a canopy perspective. Pages 189-208 in F. Almeda and C. M. Pringle (editors), Tropical rainforests: diversity and conservation. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences and Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, California.

Nadkarni, N. M., and T. J. Matelson. 1989. Bird use of epiphyte resources in Neotropical trees. Condor 91: 891–907.

Negret, A. J. 1994. Lista de aves registradas en el Parque Nacional Munchique, Cauca. Novedades Colombianas 6: 69–83.

Orcés V., G. 1974. Notes acerca de la distribución geográfica de algunas aves del Ecuador. Ciencía y Naturaleza 15: 8-11.

Parker III, T. A., and J. L. Carr (editors). 1992. Status of forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador. RAP Working Papers 2. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Parker, T. A., III, D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. Pages 113-436 in D. F. Stotz, J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, and D. K. Moskovits, Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Parrish, J., R. Reitsma, and R. Greenberg. 1998. Cacao as a crop and conservation tool. Working paper of the First International Workshop on Sustainable Cocoa Growing, Panama, March, 1998. Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Washington, D.C.

Peralta, D. F. S. 2007. Anotaciones sobre la historia natural de aves frugívoras y nectarívoras en la región de Boquete, Panamá. Zeledonia 11: 14–19.

Price, R. D., and R. C. Dalgleish. 2006. Myrsidea Waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), with descriptions of 18 new species. Zootaxa 1174: 1–25.

Pringle, C., I. Chacon, M. Grayum, H. Greene, G. Hartshorn, G. Schatz, G. Stiles, C. Gomez, and M. Rodriguez. 1984. Natural history observations and ecological evaluation of the La Selva Protection Zone, Costa Rica. Brenesia 22: 189–206.

Restall, R. L., C. Rodner, and M. R. Lentino. 2006. Birds of northern South America: an identification guide. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Ridgely, R. S. and P. J. Greenfield. 2001a. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution, and taxonomy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Ridgely, R. S. and J. A. Gwynne, Jr.. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Ridgely, R. S. and G. Tudor. 1989. The birds of South America. Volume I. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Ridgely, R. S., and G. Tudor. 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South America. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.

Robinson, W. D. 1999. Long-term changes in the avifauna of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a tropical forest isolate. Conservation Biology 13: 85–97.

Robinson, W. D. 2001. Changes in abundance of birds in a Neotropical forest fragment over 25 years: a review. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 51–65.

Robinson, W. D., J. D. Brawn, and S. K. Robinson. 2000. Forest bird community structure in central Panama: influence of spatial scale and biogeography. Ecological Monographs 70: 209–235.

Rodríguez Arias, C. and I. Guido Granados. 2012. Potencial para el turismo de observación de aves en la zona de amortiguamiento de la Reserva Biológica Alberto Manuel Brenes, Costa Rica. Zeledonia 16: 21–47.

Ryder, T. B., and J. D. Wolfe 2009. The current state of knowledge on molt and plumage sequences in selected neotropical bird families: a review. Ornitología Neotropical 20: 1–18.

Sandoval, L. 2006. Nombres comunes de las aves de Costa Rica: significado y origen. Revista de Filología y Lingüística de la Universidad de Costa Rica 32.

Schoener, T. W. 1965. The evolution of bill size differences among sympatric congeneric species of birds. Evolution 19: 189–213.

Sclater, P. L. 1863. Synopsis of the known species of Dacnis. Ibis 5: 311-317.

Sclater, P. L. 1886. Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Part 11. British Museum, London.

Sclater, P. L., and O. Salvin. 1879. On the birds collected by the late Mr. T. K. Salmon in the State of Antioquia, United States of Colombia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 47: 486–550.

Skutch, A. F. 1946. Ferns in birds' nests. American Fern Journal 36: 14–17.

Skutch, A. F. 1962. Life histories of honeycreepers. Condor 64: 92–116.

Skutch, A. F. 1967. Life histories of Central American highland birds. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club number 7. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Slud, P. 1960. The birds of Finca “La Selva,” Costa Rica : a tropical wet forest locality. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 121: 49-148.

Slud, P. 1964. The birds of Costa Rica. Sistributiona and ecology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 128.

Stiles, F. G. 1991. Lista preliminar de la avifauna de la Reserva Forestal de San Ramón. Pages 73-78 in Memoria de Investigación, Reserva Forestal de San Ramón. Oficina de Publicaciones, Sede de Occidente, Universidad de Costa Rica.

Stiles, F. G., and A. F. Skutch. 1989. Guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Storer, R. W. 1969. What is a tanager? Living Bird 8: 127–136.

Storer, R.W. 1970. Subfamily Thraupinae, tanagers. Pages 246-408 in R. A. Paynter, Jr., and R. W. Storer (editors), Check-list of birds of the world. Volume XIII. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Strauch, J.G. 1977. Further bird weights from Panama. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 97: 61–65.

Strewe, R. 2003. Arealstrukturen von tangaren (Thraupinae) im südwestlichen Kolumbien. Ornithologischer Anzeiger 42: 111–146.

Tordoff, H. B. 1954. A systematic study of the avian family Fringillidae, based on the structure of the skull. Miscellaneous Publications Museum Zoology, University of Michigan 81.

Vogt, C., and R. Ahlman. 2006. Bird species diversity in rustic cacao plantations in northwestern Ecuador. Fundación Maquipucuna. Available at

Watson, D. M. 2010. Optimizing inventories of diverse sites: insights from Barro Colorado Island birds. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1: 280–291.

Wetmore. A., R. F. Pasquier, and S. L. Olson. 1984. The birds of the Republic of Panamá. Part 4. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 150, Part 4.

Wheelwright, N.T., Haber, W. A., Murray, K, G., Guidon, C. 1984. Tropical fruit-eating birds and their food plants: a survey of a Costa Rican lower montane forest. Biotropica 16: 173–192.

Willis, E. O. 1980. Ecological roles of migratory and resident birds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Pages 205–225 in A. Keast and E. S. Morton (editors), Migrant birds in the Neotropics. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Young, B. E., D. DeRosier, and G. V. N. Powell. 1998. Diversity and conservation of understory birds in the Tilarán Mountains, Costa Rica. Auk 115: 998–1016.

Recommended Citation

Obando, A., C. H. Richart, and K. J. Burns (2018). Scarlet-thighed Dacnis (Dacnis venusta), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.