The Screaming Piha is resident throughout the humid lowlands of northern and central South America east of the Andes, with highly disjunct populations in eastern Brazil. The distribution extends from eastern Colombia east across northern Brazil, Venezuela, and the Guianas; and south to Bolivia, central Brazil, and across Brazil to Maranhão. There also are populations in eastern Brazil, from Pernambuco south to Espírito Santo.
Screaming Piha primarily occurs in the lowlands, up to 600 m in Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986), to 900 m in Ecuador (but most often is below 500 m; Ridgely and Greenfield 2001), to 1150 m in Peru (Schulenberg et al. 2010), to 1400 m in Bolivia (Hennessey et al. 2003), and to 1400 m in Venezuela (but most records are below 900 m; Hilty 2003).