The Scarlet-breasted Dacnis is currently listed as Vulnerable based on IUCN criteria. Habitat loss within the core part of the species's small range, which is confined to the Chocó of southwest Colombia and extreme northwest Ecuador, has been extensive, and the rate of this destruction appears to be increasing. The species is found from sea level to 1200 m, but usually well below this upper limit. Arguably the most beautiful of the entire genus, the Scarlet-breasted Dacnis should be instantly recognizable in both male and female plumage. The male is mostly azure-blue, with silvery streaking on the mantle and a silver-blue rump, and a flame-red lower breast grading to buff on the belly. Females are brown, becoming more buffy below, but identified by the paler flame-red band over the breast; both sexes have yellow irides.
The genus name Dacnis comes from the Greek word "Daknis", which is an unspecified type of bird from Egypt (Jobling 2010). The specific epithet "berlepschi" is a patronym honoring the German ornithologist Hans Hermann Carl Ludwig Graf von Berlepsch who specialized in the Neotropical avifauna (Jobling 2010). In Spanish the common name is Dacnis Pechiescarleta or Dacnis Pechirrojo (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, de Juana et al. 2012).