The Red-winged Wood-Rail prefers seasonally flooded igapó forest, as well as other forest types in hilly terrain provided there are streams in the vicinity. It has been recorded to at least 1200 m. Confined to upper Amazonia, where it is known from eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, and southwest Amazonas state, Brazil, the species is very rarely observed and next to nothing is known about its ecology, although its nest was recently described from observations in the first-named country. It was placed low above the ground and the clutch size was three eggs. Unusually for a wood-rail, the species’ vocalizations are apparently unknown, and it has been speculated that the Red-winged Wood-Rail might be a rather quiet bird. This wood-rail is most similar in plumage to the geographically distant Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura); in its range, the Red-winged Wood-Rail is the only Aramides to possess such extensively gray underparts, which contrast with the bright rufous neck sides. It is also smaller than the sympatric Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajanea).