The Rufous-tailed Attila is a rare, migratory flycatcher of eastern South America. In the austral winter, the species retreats north into the Amazon basin from its restricted breeding haunts in southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and Misiones, Argentina. The species prefers the higher parts of humid forest and has been noted to occur in Araucaria forest. It is fairly large and rufous overall with a dark gray head; the underparts are paler and yellower than the rufous upperparts. Like other Attila species, this bird has a long, thick, hooked bill and is rather vocal; Rufous-tailed Attila has a querulous, whistled three part call which is useful in detecting this poorly-known flycatcher.