Rufous Spinetail is a skulking songbird of montane northwestern South America. Distributed along the Andes from Venezuela south to Peru, this furnariid inhabits the undergrowth of forest between 1700 and 3200 meters in elevation. A standard Synallaxis spinetail in structure, it is rufous throughout with black lores. Interestingly, it is more easily confused with Rufous Wren than it is with any spinetail, but the wren has barring in the wings and tail, and has a rounded tail unlike the spine-tailed spinetail. Difficult to see, especially in the dense bamboo undergrowth that it prefers, the Rufous Spinetail can be found by listening for its song, a single-note, upsplurred squeak that is repeated frequently.