Gnateaters are small, plump looking birds with a very short tail and relatively long tarsi. Another distinctive feature is a prominent white postocular stripe, which may be largely concealed, or flared laterally, especially when a gnateater is agitated. Rufous Gnateater otherwise has relatively plain plumage, with dull brown upperparts, tawny throat, breast, and flanks, and a white belly. Rufous Gnateater occupies the understory of humid and gallery forest in southeastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and northeastern Argentina; it also ranges into drier forests in south central Brazil. This gnateater forages for insects on or near the ground. The nest of Rufous Gnateater is a cup placed within 2 m of the ground, and the clutch is two eggs.