The Rufous-capped Spinetail is one of the most boldly patterned species in the genus Synallaxis with a rich rufous cap, bordered by a buffy streak, dark cheeks, and elongated, strengthened, central tail rectrices. It is unlikely to be confused with any other species within its range. The Rufous-capped Spinetail is a year-round resident of southeast Brazil and northeast Argentina and is generally found in mixed species flocks foraging for arthropods. It is an inhabitant of montane evergreen forest, tropical lowland evergreen forest, and secondary forest, often found in stands of Chusquea bamboo. Despite its fairly large range, the Rufous-capped Spinetail is uncommon; subsequently, not much is known about the species' overall biology and behavior. Compared to other species in the genus Synallaxis, the Rufous-capped Spinetail is one of the easiest to see and identify.