Smaller than the congeneric Chestnut-headed Crake (Anurolimnas castaneiceps), the Russet-crowned Crake is further distinguished by having the entire underparts rufous, rather than dark brown from the belly rearwards. The two species are also completely different in terms of their vocalisations. The Russet-crowned Crake is a wide-ranging species, being found over the greater part of Amazonia, as well as more locally in eastern Brazil and in the middle Magdalena Valley of Colombia. This crake prefers dense thickets of second growth, waste ground, wet pastures and bushy savanna, and is not a strict inhabitant of marshes. It has been recorded to at least 1200 m, and is far from being strictly terrestrial, as it regularly climbs on low trees and bushes. Very little has been published on its ecology, although the nest has been described, and the species is generally assumed to breed in the first six months of the year.