Rufous-crowned Antpitta is the more southerly ranging of the two species of Pittasoma. It is a Chocó bioregion endemic, found from northwestern Colombia south to northwestern Ecuador, and always is on or close to the ground in very wet forests below 1100 m. Within its relatively small range, there is considerable sexual and racial variation in plumage, with three recognized subspecies. All plumage variations, however, are stunningly attractive and impossible to mistake. The head is largely rufous in two subspecies (the rufous being restricted to the crown in the nominate race), interrupted by a broad, black, tapering eyestripe that reaches onto the nape, while the underparts are largely pale, but extensively barred in two subspecies. These antpittas have long legs, an upright posture, and very short tails that may be almost entirely cloaked by their wings. Currently considered Near Threatened and vulnerable to ongoing habitat degradation, Rufous-crowned Antpitta is sorely in need of studies documenting its breeding, behavior, foraging strategy, and habitat use.