The Rock Earthcreeper is one of the four members of the newly reinstated genus Ochetorhynchus. It is found in southern Bolivia and northwest Argentina, with a single record in northern Chile. It is most similar to and sometimes found sympatrically with the Straight-billed Earthcreeper (Ochetorhynchus ruficaudus). Both of these species cock their tail when on the ground, but on average the Rock Earthcreeper maintains it at a 45 degree angle, rather than straight upright. Rock Earthcreepers are buffy below and look dark streaked the opposite of the pale streaked Straight-billed Earthcreeper. Rock Earthcreeper likes rocky canyon with adjacent scrub or shrub vegetation, on the whole more vegetatively complex habitats than the Straight-billed Earthcreeper. This is the only member of Ochetorhynchus that has an entirely evenly rufous tail.