The Red-throated Pipit essentially a Palearctic species, breeding from Scandinavia east to Siberia, although a small number breed in nortwesternmost Alaska. In most years there is a tiny movement of southbound birds along the West Coast of North America, largely in California and Baja California, Mexico. Some have overwintered in Baja California, and there are precious few records of northbound individuals, although they have occurred. In the Old World, wintering latitudes are south of the Sahara in Africa, and in tropical Southeast Asia so it is perhaps not unexpected, although incredibly exciting and surprising, that one winter Red-throated Pipit was recently nicely documented from Ecuador. It is hypothesized that southbound Red-throated Pipits moving from Alaska and Siberia south to Southeast Asia become entrained in west winds that shift them over to North American shores, it is these than then continue south into lower latitudes in the New World. The annual variation in numbers is sizable, and most if not all appear to be young of the year. As adults the species does show a bright reddish throat, but young birds are dull and could be easily confused for various other pipits, particularly the Correndera Pipit (Anthus correndera) in South America. The Red-throated is more subtly marked, has a thinner bill, bold dark lateral throat stripes, and less strikingly white underparts.