Notice for readers: On March 31, Neotropical Birds will be integrated into the new Birds of the World, a powerful research database offering species accounts for every species on earth. Learn more at While Birds of the World is a subscription service, we remain committed to offering this content to Neotropical Birds contributors and to those unable to pay for it through our scholarship program. Stay tuned.

Masked Cardinal Paroaria nigrogenis



Birdlife International. 2015. Species fact sheet: Paroaria nigrogenis. Downloaded from on 19 March 2015.

Burns, K.J., A.J. Shultz, P.O. Title, N.A. Mason, F.K. Barker, J. Klicka, S.M. Lanyon, I.J. Lovette, 2014. Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41-77

Dávalos, L.M. and A.L. Porzecanski. 2009. Accounting for molecular stochasticity in systematic revisions: Species limits and phylogeny of Paroaria. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 53: 234-248.

Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from

ffrench, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Second edition. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Hilty, S. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Jarmillo, A. 2011. Masked Cardinal (Paroaria nigrogenis). In: del Hoyo J., Elliot, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A., and de Juana, E. (Eds)(2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ( retrieved from on 9 April 2015).

Jobling, J. A. 2010. Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Christopher Helm Publications, London.

Parker, T. A., III, D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. Pages 113-436 in D. F. Stotz, J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, and D. K. Moskovits, Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois

Restall, R., C. Rodner, and M. Lentino. 2007. Birds of northern South America: an identification guide. Volume 1. Species accounts. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Ryder T.B and J.D. Wolfe. 2009.The current state of knowledge on molt and plumage sequences in selected Neotropical bird families: A review. Ornitologia Neotropical. Neotropical Ornithological Society. 20:1-18.

Yuri, T., and D. P. Mindell. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics analysis of Fringillidae, New World nine-primaried oscines (Aves: Passeriformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23: 229–243.

Recommended Citation

Masked Cardinal (Paroaria nigrogenis), In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: