Pygmy Nightjar is endemic to northeastern Brazil. Despite its restricted geographic range, three subspecies of Pygmy Nightjar generally are recognized, one of them only recently described; these subspecies differ clinally in overall coloration, from the palest populations in the north to the darkest in the south. Pygmy Nightjar is distributed over the northeast of the country from northern Ceará south to Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. Improved knowledge of the species’ distribution and abundance has led to it being downlisted from Near Threatened in the 1990s to Least Concern in the present day. As befits its name, Pygmy Nightjar is a very small nightjar with a comparatively large white throat patch, and, in the male, small white patches in the primaries . Pygmy Nightjar most easily is seen at forest borders, especially in areas of rocks interspersed by clumps of vegetation, where this nightjar can be located at its day roosts.