Puerto Rican Tody Todus mexicanus

  • Order: Coraciiformes
  • Family: Todidae
  • Monotypic
  • Authors: Aleshia Fremgen


Arendt, W.J., J. Faaborg, G.E. Wallace, and O.H. Garrido. 2004. Biometrics of birds throughout the Greater Caribbean Basin. Proceedings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology 8: 1-33.

BirdLife International. 2013. Species factsheet: Puerto Rican Tody Todus mexicanus. Downloaded from BirdLife International on 10 October 2013.

Bond, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Fourth edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Borkhataria, R.R., J.A. Collazo, and M.J. Groom. 2012. Species abundance and potential biological control services in shade vs. sun coffee in Puerto Rico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 151: 1-5.

Faaborg, J. 1977. Metabolic rates, resources, and the occurrence of nonpasserines in terrestrial avian communities. American Naturalist 111: 903-916.

Faaborg, J., and W.J. Arendt. 1989. Longevity estimates of Puerto Rican birds. North American Bird Bander 14: 11-13.

Faaborg, J., and J.E. Winters. 1979. Winter resident returns and longevity and weights of Puerto Rican birds. Bird-Banding 50: 216-223.

Hernandez Machado, B. 1999. Short-term effects of Hurricane Georges on the foraging behavior of the Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexicanus). El Pitirre 12: 114-115.

Kepler, A.K. 1972. A comparative study of todies (Aves, Todidae), with emphasis on the Puerto Rican Tody, Todus mexicanus. Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Lister, B. C., and A. Garcia. 2018. Climate-driven declines in arthropod abundance restructure a rainforest food web. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 201722477.

Merola, M. 1995. Fruit in the diet of nestlings of the Puerto Rican Tody, a tropical insectivore. Wilson Bulletin 107: 181-182.

Merola-Zwartjes, M. 1996. The ecological energetics of a tiny tropical bird, the Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexicanus). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Merola-Zwartjes, M., and J.D. Ligon. 2000. Ecological energetics of the Puerto Rican Tody: heterothermy, torpor, and intra-island variation. Ecology 81: 990-1003.

Olson, S.L. 1976. Oligocene fossils bearing on the origins of the Todidae and Motmotidae (Aves: Coraciiformes). Pages 111-116 in S.L. Olson (editor), Collected papers in avian paleontology honoring the 90th birthday of Alexander Wetmore. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology volume 27.

Oniki, Y. 1975. Temperatures of some Puerto Rican birds, with note of low temperatures in todies. Condor 77: 344.

Overton, L. C., and D. D. Rhoads. 2004. Molecular phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences for the Todies (Todus, Todidae) of the Caribbean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 524-538.

Raffaele, H. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Revised edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Raffaele, H.A., J. Wiley, O. Garrido, A. Keith, and J. Raffaele. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West Indies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Ridgway 1914, R. 1914. The birds of North and middle America Part VI. United States National Museum Bulletin 50, part 6.

Rodriguez Camacho, E. 2006. EcologĂ­a del Todus mexicanus (Coraciiformes-Todidae) en el Bosque de SusĂșa, Sabana Grande, Puerto Rico. Thesis, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Rolle, F. J. 1963. Notes on the nesting burrow and the young of the Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexicanus). The Auk 80: 551.

Struthers, P. H. 1923. Observations on the bird life of Porto Rico. The Auk 40(3): 469-478.

Waide, R. B. 1991. The effect of Hurricane Hugo on bird populations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 23: 475-180.

Waide, R. B. 1996. Birds. Pages 364-398 in Reagan, D.P. and R. B. Waide, editor. The Food Web of a Tropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Wetmore, A. 1916. Birds of Porto Rico. United States Department of Agriculture Bulletin 326:1-140.

Recommended Citation

Fremgen, A. (2018). Puerto Rican Tody (Todus mexicanus), version 2.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.