Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant Anairetes reguloides

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Tyrannidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Shane G. DuBay and Christopher C. Witt


Geographic Variation

Two described subspecies: nominate reguloides (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye 1837) occurs from southern Ayacucho, Peru south to Arica in extreme northern Chile; and albiventris (Chapman 1924) occurs in central Peru from Ancash south to Ica and western Ayacucho. Chapman (1924) diagnosed albiventris as differing in having white, not pale yellow, underparts; a longer tail (50 mm vs 46 mm in nominate reguloides); and a larger crest. Hellmayr (1927: 377) pointed out that although northern populations averaged whiter below, individual specimens were not always separable by this character; indeed, according to Hellmayr the belly of the type specimen of nominate reguloides, from Tacna in far southern Peru, is as white as in specimens of albiventris from Lima. Fjeldså and Krabbe (1990) do not even mention the color of the underparts as a distinguishing character between these two subspecies; according to them, the diagnostic differences of albiventris are a longer crest; less conspicuous crown patch; and broader white tips to the undersides of the outer rectrices (4-5 mm in albiventris, and 1.5-4 mm in reguloides).

Related Species

Ohlson et al. (2008) and Tello et al. (2009): Passeriformes: Tyrannidae: Elaeniinae: Anairetes reguloides

The genus formerly was known as Spizitornis (d’Orbigny and Lafresnaye 1837). Anairetes is a monophyletic genus within Elaeniine flycatchers. The genus has historically contained six species, but recently the two members of genus Uromyias have been placed within Anairetes (Roy et al. 1999). Genus Anairetes is a member of a well-supported clade that also includes Mecocerculus leucophrys and the genera Polystictus, Culicivora, Psuedocolopteryx, and Serpophaga (Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009).

A phylogeny of Anairetes (Roy et al. 1999) demonstarted that the Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant is closely related tp and the and sister species of Black-crested Tit-Tyrant (A. nigrocristatus), with which it appears to form a superspecies.  The phylogeny was based on 632 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (ND2 and cytochome b genes).

Recommended Citation

DuBay, S. G. and C. C. Witt (2009). Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes reguloides), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.