As we enter the 21st century, research on Ospreys in the Neotropics might do well to focus on the following topics: 1) status of breeding populations in the Caribbean; Belize would be a good place to start since that population is concentrated along the spine of the reef and nesting cayes are generally accessible. Belize Ospreys appear limited by nest sites and would likely respond well to the provisioning of artificial sites. 2) How to curb the shooting of North American breeders spending the boreal winter in South America and the Caribbean. We now know that such shooting is widespread, at least in "hot spots" -- e.g., especially around fish farms. Work by Bechard and Marquez-Reyes (2003) provides a model for the local educational efforts needed to reduce this killing. 3) Very little is known of the breeding rates and population dynamics of Ospreys in the Neotropics; Judge (1983) and Cartron (2000) provide the model for focused studies needed in this area.