The strikingly-plumaged Ocellated Crake is a typically secretive and poorly known member of the Rallidae, and is the sole member of the genus Micropygia. There are two disjunct populations. In the north of its range, the species occurs, apparently discontinuously, in eastern Colombia, southern Venezuela, and in parts of the Guianas, with one record well beyond this in Costa Rica. Further south in South America, the Ocellated Crake’s range is seemingly more continuously distributed across central and southeast Brazil, as far as extreme southeastern Peru and northern Bolivia. The Ocellated Crake inhabits various dense grassland habitats, including wet areas and forest borders, but the species appears to be only truly numerous in high-quality native cerrado. Recorded to 1400 m, at least one recent record from one of Brazil’s inshore islands, in totally atypical habitat, suggests the previously unsuspected possibility of migrations or other movements.