Confined to the marine island of Fernando de Noronha, more than 700 km off the coast of northeast Brazil, and one of its satellite islets, the Noronha Elaenia is reportedly the least common of the archipelago’s three resident landbirds, with a current population estimated at fewer than 1000 individuals. Historically, numbers were considered to be much larger, prior to the island’s human colonization, following which substantial forest loss occurred. As a result, the species is listed as Vulnerable by BirdLife International. Superficially most similar to the Large Elaenia (Elaenia spectabilis), the Noronha Elaenia is the only species of elaenia on the island, and indeed the only species of tyrant-flycatcher, making identification straightforward. It inhabits scrub, woodland, and gardens, where the species feeds on insects and small fruits, and it is presumed to breed between February and May.