Endemic to Brazil, the widespread destruction of dry forest in the country’s interior has rapidly reduced the now small population of the Moustached Woodcreeper. This large, heavy-billed woodcreeper has a wide but highly fragmented distribution from eastern Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, western Paraíba, Pernambuco, Bahia, and northern Minas Gerais, although not all of these states possess recent records. It inhabits the interior of intact or slightly disturbed dry forests, which are wetter and taller than is typical of the Caatinga biome as a whole. The Moustached Woodcreeper feeds on insect larvae, ants, snails, and beetles, and it probably nests during the austral summer. Two subspecies are recognized, which some authors have occasionally suggested might warrant specific status, but little support for this proposition has accrued.