Madeira Antren is a typical species of Epinecrophylla: it is a dead leaf specialist, meaning that it forages by searching for insects in curled dead leaves that are trapped in foliage in the understory of humid lowland forest, and draws attention by virtue of its acrobatic foraging behavior. This antwren typically accompanies mixed species flocks, and is fairly common. Madeira Antwren is a member of the Epinecrophylla haematonota complex, all of which formerly were included in a single broad species, "Stipple-throated Antwren". The males of all members of this group have black and white spots, or stippling, on the throat. The male Madeira Antwren has a rufous back, which is pattern shared with most other species of the group. The distribution of Madeira Antwren is centered on the Purus and Madeira drainages in southwestern Amazonia. Its distribution abuts that of Rufous-backed Antwren (Epinecrophylla haematonota), which occurs just to the northwest. These two species are very similar in appearance, but their songs are recognizably different.