The Little Wood-Rail is one of the most poorly known members of the genus Aramides. It largely prefers coastal swamps, lagoons and mangroves, but has occasionally been recorded inland and even at some altitude in southeast Brazil, while recent evidence conclusively demonstrates that it also inhabits the dry Caatinga of northeast Brazil, at least during the brief wet season there, when it breeds. The species’ vocalizations have only very recently been documented and described. Bizarrely for such a ‘noisy’ genus, the Little Wood-Rail was considered ‘mute’ by some previous commentators. The smallest of the genus Aramides, the Little Wood-Rail is definitively separated from any other wood-rail by its red-based greenish bill, although it also lacks the gray underparts of the Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura) or gray neck of the Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajanea). Long considered to be a Brazilian endemic, there is a recent record of the Little Wood-Rail in French Guiana, although it remains to be seen if there is a resident population in the latter country, or if the bird was a vagrant.