Keel-billed Toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus

  • Order: Piciformes
  • Family: Ramphastidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Revee Jones and Carole S. Griffiths


BirdLife International (2011) Species factsheet: Ramphastos sulfuratus. Downloaded from on 07/08/2011.

Chang, T. D., J. M. Sullivan, S. R. Kaplan, E. B. R. Pascall, and Y. Gu. 2008. Two can play this game: a study of toucan dominance in the frugivorous bird community at La Selva, Costa Rica. Dartmouth Studies in Tropical Ecology.

Galindo, P. and Sousau, O. 1966. Blood parasites of birds from Almirante, Panama with ecological notes on the hosts. Revista de Biologia Tropical 14 (1): 27·46.

Graham, C. 2001. Habitat selection and activity budgets of Keel-billed Toucans at the landscape level. Condor 103:776-784.

Greiner, E.C. and B.W. Ritchie. 1994. Parasites. Pages 1007-1029 in Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. (BW Ritchie, GJ Harrison, and LR Harrison, eds.). Wingers Publishing, Lake Worth, Florida.

Haffer, J. 1974. Avian speciation in tropical South America with a systematic survey of the toucans (Ramphastidae) and jacamars (Galbulidae). Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club number 14. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Hammon WM, Reeves WC, Cunha R, Espana C, Sather G. 1948. Isolation from wild bird mites (Liponyssus sylviarum) of a virus or mixture of viruses from which St. Louis and Western Equine Encephalitis viruses have been obtained. Science 107: 92-93.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. Second edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, New York, New York.

Kays, R., P.A. Jansen, E.M.H. Knecht, R. Vohwinkel, and M. Wikelski. 2011. The effect of feeding time on dispersal of Virola seeds by toucans determined from GPS tracking and accelerometers. Acta Oecologia 37: 625-631.

Kantak, G. 1981. Temporal feeding patterns of some tropical frugivores. Condor 83:185-187.

Libsch, M.M., C. Batista. D. Buehler, I. Ochoa, J. Brawn, and R.E. Ricklefs. 2008. Nest predation in a neotropical forest occurs during daytime. Condor 110(1):166-170.

Malcomson, R.O. 1960. Mallophaga from birds of North America. Wilson Bulletin 72(2): 181-197.

Manwell, R.D. and G.J. Sessler. 1971. Malaria Parasites of Toucans. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 18(4):570–574.

McDonald, B.A., W.S. Brooks, and B.E.P.B. O'Connell. 1995. Possible insect repellent function of green leaves placed on nests by hawks. Passenger Pigeon 57(1):37-40.

Moermond, T.C. and J.S. Deslow. 1985. Neotropical avian frugivores: Patterns of behavior, morphology, and nutrition, with consequences for fruit selection. Ornithological Monographs 36:865-897.

Monroe, B.L. 1968. A distributional survey of the birds of Honduras. Ornithological Monographs 7:1-458.

Otten, B.A., S.D. Orosz, S. Auge, and D. L. Frazier. 2001. Mineral content of food items commonly ingested by keel-billed toucans (Ramphastos sulfuratus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 15(3):194–196.

Patané, J. S. L., J. D. Weckstein, A. Aleixo, and J. M. Bates. 2009. Evolutionary history of Ramphastos toucans: Molecular phylogenetics, temporal diversification, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 923-934.

Pounds, J.A., M.P.L. Fogden and J.H. Campbell. 1999. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain. Nature 398(6728):611-615.

Rangel-Salazar, J.L. and P.L. Enriquez-Rocha. 1993. Nest record and dietary Items for the Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus rannus) from the Yucatan Peninsula. Journal of Raptor Research 27(2):121-122

Remsen, Jr., J. V., M. A. Hyde and A. Chapman. 1993. The diets of Neotropical trogons, motmots, barbets and toucans. The Condor 95:178-192.

Ridgway, R. 1914. The birds of North and Middle America. Part VI. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 50, part

Robinson, W. D and T. D. Robinson. 2001. Observations of predation events at bird nests in central Panama. Journal of Field Ornithology 72(1):43-48.

Sehgal R.N.M, H.I Jones and T.B. Smith. 2005. Molecular evidence for host specificity of parasitic nematode microfilariae in some African rainforest birds. Molecular Ecology 14:3977-3988.

Short, L. L., and J. F. M. Horne. 2001. Toucans, barbets, and honeyguides;
Ramphastidae, Capitonidae, and Indicatoridae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Short, L. L., and J. F. M. Horne. 2002. Family Ramphastidae (Toucans). Pages 220-272 in Handbook of the birds of the world, Vol. 7. (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliot, and J. Sargatal (eds.). Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Skutch, A. F. 1971. Life history of the Keel-billed Toucan. Auk

Van Tyne, J. (1929) The life history of the toucan Ramphastos brevicarinatus. Univ. Michigan, Mus. Zool., Misc. Publ. 19: 1-43

Visvesvara, C. S., G. C. Booton, D. J. Kelley, P. Fuerst, R. Sriram, A. Finkelstein, and M. M. Garner. 1948. Isolation from wild bird mites (Liponyssus sylviarum) of a virus or mixture of viruses from which St. Louis and Western Equine Encephalitis viruses have been obtained. Science 107: 92-93.

Weckstein, J. D. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Ramphastos toucans:
implications for the evolution of morphology, vocalizations, and coloration. Auk 122:1191-1209.

Wetmore, A. 1968. The birds of the Republic of Panama. Part 2. Columbidae (pigeons) to Picidae (woodpeckers). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections volume 150, part 2. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Recommended Citation

Jones, R. and C. S. Griffiths (2011). Keel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.