A native of Java and Bali, where it is now rare and declining, the Java Sparrow has been introduced into many other countries and islands across Asia, as well as also in Africa, and several islands in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Impossible to mistake, due to its large pinkish-red bill and attractive gray plumage, in the Neotropical region the Java Sparrow has seemingly become established in part of the rice-growing region of northern Venezuela, as well as in the San Juan metropolitan area, on Puerto Rico. It apparently arrived on the latter island in the late 1950s or 1960s, but has never spread and might be declining there. Another population became established on Jamaica, briefly, between c.1903 and 1946. There are also a few records of escapees in Colombia in recent years. The Java Sparrow is sometimes included within the monospecific genus Padda.