The Horned Screamer is considered a species of Least Concern by the IUCN, because it does not conform to any of the three criteria: small range, very fast rate of decrease, or small population size (BirdLife International 2010). This should not, however, limit concern and attention for the future of the species as such a conspicuous large species with specific habitat preference could be severely devastated by increased human activity (Allen 1962, Gonzales 1999, Kear 2005). The potential consequences are demonstrated by the extirpation of this species from Trinidad and the Guianas (see Historical changes).
Effects of human activity on populations
The effect of human activity on the Horned Screamer in the Amazon is similar the effect on many other animal and plant species in the region. Deforestation is probably the biggest threat to the species (Carboneras 1992, Kears 2005), although hunting also is a known threat (Herklotts 1961, Allen 1962, Gonzales 1999). A combination of both of these factors probably contribute to the decreasing population trend (Ross and Scott 1997, BirdLife International 2010).
The deforestation of the Amazon is most closely linked to agriculture and logging. Alava et al. (2009) found that Horned Screamers were much less abundant in areas that had been degraded by farming and that the population density of screamers was inversely correlated with the presence of cattle.