This is a rare species that has likely declined since the early 1900s due to habitat loss (Latta et al. 2006). The most recent population estimate is 3375 individuals (3000 within the Sierra de Bahorucos; Latta et al. 2000). Latta et al. (2000) estimated abundance in the Sierra de Bahorucos at 0.12 birds/ha (12 birds/km2).
Population is regulated primarily by food availability. Low cone production islandwide causes population declines, while an abundance of cones causes population increases. Observations of crossbills made in the winters of 1996-1999 showed a strong correlation between abundance of crossbills and cones (Latta et al. 2000). May also be limited by patch size (i.e., fragmentation), based on results of foraging and nesting habitat studies (Latta et al. 2000).
No information on age at first breeding, life span and survivorship, diseases and body parasites, or dispersal.