All five species of Selenidera toucanets possess broadly similar plumage, although the Yellow-eared Toucanet (Selenidera spectabilis) of Central America and extreme northwest South America is obviously much longer-billed. The Gould’s Toucanet occurs in eastern Amazonia, where it is distributed exclusively south of the Amazon across Brazil to northeast Bolivia, with a tiny outlying population within the Caatinga. It is usually considered to represent part of superspecies that also contains the Tawny-tufted Toucanet (Selenidera nattereri) of northwest Amazonia, the Gold-collared Toucanet (Selenidera reinwardtii) of upper Amazonia, and the Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera maculirostris), which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The present species is rarely found away from terra firme forest, although it occasionally enters seasonally flooded areas, second growth, and gallery forests within the northern Cerrado region. Almost nothing is known concerning the ecology of the Gould’s Toucanet, which like other Selenidera species is most likely to be initially detected by its slow-paced, grunting vocalizations, although these are far less obvious than those of the various Pteroglossus aracaris that occur sympatrically with it.