Restricted to the Pacific slope of the West Andes, at elevations below 1100 m, the Golden-chested Tanager is found in humid forest between central Colombia and extreme northwest Ecuador, in which country it is very poorly known. This tanager is usually found singly or in pairs, but typically within mixed-species flocks and often in the crowns of trees. Like other Bangsia tanagers, it is a striking and very attractive bird, clad largely in black, but with a bold yellow crescent-shaped patch on the breast, and other patches of yellow on the ventral region and underwing-coverts. Both parts of the Latin binomial honor early ornithologists. Bangsia is named for Outram Bangs, a United States zoologist and collector; the specific epithet rothschildi honors Lionel Walter 2nd Baron Rothschild of Trig who was an English ornithologist, entomologist, collector, and publisher (Jobling 2010). The German common name is Rothschildtangare (Strewe 2003). In Spanish the common name of this species is Tangara de Rothschild or Bangsia Pechidorada (Hilty 2011, de Juana et al. 2012, Chaparro-Herrera et al. 2013).