Found strictly in the eastern region of South America, Tangara argyrofenges is endemic to eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains, spanning Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Fjeldsa and Krabbe 1990). While their distribution spans three countries, they are found sparsely and disjunctly across this range (Parker et al. 1996). Generally this species is drawn to the yungas on the eastern slopes of the Andes due to the lush forests, but they can be found in areas close to dryer, elevated cities as well (Moynihan 1979). In Bolivia, this species is most commonly encountered between 1,600-1,900 m altitudes in the yungas, in the departments of La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz (Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Moynihan 1979). Birdwatching guides for this area recommend the Villa Tunari-Cochabamba Road through the yungas as a particularly unique place to see Green-throated Tanagers (Wheatley 1995). In Peru, this species is most abundant between 1,100 -2,200 m altitudes, particularly in eastern regions of the country, the Amazonas and San Martin (Meyer de Schauensee 1966). A few records have indicated their presence as far south as Paso and Junin in central Peru, though these are less frequent sightings (Schulenberg et al. 2007). The species is less common in Ecuador. Tangara argyrofenges is found from 1,350-1,600 m altitudes in Ecuador, however no major cities or areas of concentration have been identified (Birdlife International 2014). In general, their elevation ranges from 1,200 -2,700 m (Parker et al. 1996).
Due to its resident nature, T. argyrofenges does not have separate breeding and nonbreeding ranges, nor does it have a migratory zone (Skutch 1989, Restall et al. 2007). The center of elevational abundance for this species is in the middle montane zone (Parker et al. 1996). This species occurs in the Central Andes Zoogeographic Region (Parker et al. 1996).