Overall, the biology, ecology, evolution, taxonomy, behavior, and conservations needs of Giant Antpittas are poorly understood and in need of further research. Importantly, the distribution and habitat needs of subspecies lehmanni are essentially unknown, as are the validity and/or taxonomic affinities of this enigmatic taxon (Krabbe and Schulenberg 2003). Collar and Andrew (1988) suggested that subspecies gigantea may also be particularly threatened, and certainly it is much less studied than the (now) often photographed and observed hylodroma (Woods et al. 2011). Throughout its range surveys should be undertaken in order to determine if the species survives at historical sites and to locate additional sites (BirdLife International 2012, Krabbe and Schulenberg 2003).