Due to the endangered status of the Galapagos Penguin, research dealing with preservation of the species is imperative at this time. Members of the Wildlife Conservation Research unit at the University of Oxford consider research pertaining to the age of first breeding, length of life, annual breeding success and survival rates, recruitment of juveniles, behavior pertaining to birthing grounds, and movements during El Niño seasons is crucial for the conservation of this endangered species. Other areas that research is lacking in include the degree of movement between populations on different islands, the extent to which the penguin migrates through their range, and the reproductive success of adults (Nims et al. 2008). While not directly related to research on the bird, better prediction of El Niño events, could drastically increase wildlife manager’s ability to better prepare and take effective action to protect this species (Vargas et al. 2006).