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Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus

  • Order: Sphenisciformes
  • Family: Spheniscidae
  • Monotypic
  • Authors: Annica Lila Carlson and Jens Steven Townsdin


Bailey, A. M. 1962. Nesting of the Galapagos Penguin and the Galapagos Sooty Gull. Condor 64: 159-161.

Baker, A.J., S.L. Pereira, O.P. Haddrath, and K.A. Edge. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273: 11-17.

BirdLife International. 2011. Species factsheet: Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus. Downloaded from BirdLife International.

Boersman, P.D. 1974. The Galapagos Penguin: a study of adaptations for life in an unpredictable environment. Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. [not seen; cited by Williams 1995]

Boersma, P.D. 1977. An ecological and behavioral study of the Galápagos Penguin. Living Bird 15: 43–93.

Boersma, P.D. 1978. Breeding patterns of Galápagos Penguins as indicators of oceanographic conditions. Science 200: 1481-1483.

Boersma, P.D. 2008. Penguins as marine sentinels. Bioscience 58: 597-607.

Bollmer, J.L., F.H. Vargas, and P.G. Parker. 2007. Low MHC variation in the endangered Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Immunogenetics 59: 593-602.

Carrera-Játiva, P.D., R. Rodríguez-Hidalgo, C. Sevilla, and G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui. 2014. Gastrointestinal parasites in the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus and the Flightless Cormorant Phalacrocorax harrisi in the Galápagos Islands. Waterbirds 42: 77-80.

Castro, I., and A. Phillips. 1996. A guide to the birds of the Galápagos Islands. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gottdenker, N.L., T. Walsh, H. Vargas, J. Merkel, G.U. Jiménez, R.E. Millerm, M. Dailey, and P.G. Parker. 2005. Assessing the risks of introduced chickens and their pathogens to native birds in the Galápagos Archipelago. Biological Conservation 126: 429-439.

Harris, M. 1974. A field guide to the birds of Galapagos. Taplinger Publishing Company, New York, New York.

Levin, I.I., P. Zwiers, S.L. Deem, E.A. Geest, J.M. Higashiguchi, T.A. Iezhova, G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui, D.H. Kim, J.P. Morton, N.G. Perlut, R.B. Renfrew, E.H.R. Sari, G. Valkiunas, and P.G. Parker. 2013. Multiple lineages of avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium) in the Galapagos Islands and evidence for arrival via migratory birds. Conservation Biology 27: 1366-1377.

Luna-Jorquera, G., S. Garthe, F.G. Sepulveda, T. Weichiler, and J.A. Vassquez. 2000. Population size of Humboldt Penguins assessed by combined terrestrial and at-sea counts. Waterbirds 23: 506-510.

Meile, R.J., R.C. Lacy, F.H. Vargas, and P.G. Parker. 2013. Modeling plasmodium parasite arrival in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Auk 130: 440-448.

Merkel, J., H.I Jones, N.K. Whiteman, N. Gottdenker, H. Vargas, E.K. Travis, E. Miller, and P.G. Parker. 2007. Microfilariae in Galápagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi): genetics, morphology, and prevalence. Journal of Parasitology 93: 495-503.

Mills, K.L. 1998. Multispecies seabird feeding flocks in the Galápagos Islands. Condor 100: 277-285.

Nims, B.D., H.F. Vargas, J. Merkel, and P.G. Parker. 2008. Low genetic diversity and lack of population structure in the endangered Galápagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Conservation Genetics 9: 1413-1420.

Restall, R., C. Rodner, and M. Lentino. 2006. Birds of northern South America: an Identification Guide, Volume 1: species accounts. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Swash, A., and R. Still. 2000. Birds, mammals, and reptiles of the Galapagos Islands: an identification guide. Second edition. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Vargas, H., C. Lougheed, and H. Snell. 2005. Population size and trends of the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus. Ibis 147: 367-374.

Vargas, F. Hernan, S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D.W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Nino on the Galapagos Penguin. Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Vargas, H.F., R.C. Lacy, P.J. Johnson, A. Steinfurth, R.J. Crawford, P.D. Boersma, and D.W. Macdonald. 2007. Modeling the effect of El Niño on the persistence of small populations: the Galápagos Penguin as a case study. Biological Conservation 137: 138-148.

Williams, T.D. 1995. The penguins. Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York, New York.

Recommended Citation

Carlson, A. L. and J. S. Townsdin (2012). Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.