Gray-and-gold Warbler Myiothlypis fraseri

  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Parulidae
  • Polytypic: 2 subspecies
  • Authors: Thomas S. Schulenberg and Tom Johnson


Geographic Variation

Two subspecies are recognized:

ochraceicrista, described as Basileuterus fraseri ochraceicrista Chapman 1921; type locality Chone, Manaví [Manabí], Ecuador

Occurs in coastal western Ecuador, from Manabí at least to southern Guayas, and on Puna Island. The affinities of warblers in El Oro are unclear, with both ochraceicrista and nominate fraseri reported from that region (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a).

This subspecies is similar to nominate fraseri, but "with the center of the crown ochraceous-orange instead of lemon-chrome slightly tipped with chestnut" (Chapman 1921: 11). Intergrades with nominate fraseri (Chapman 1921, Hellmayr 1935).

fraseri, described as Basileuterus fraseri Sclater 1884; type locality Pallatanga and Babahoyo, western Ecuador

Occurs in Andean foothills and adjacent lowlands from central Ecuador (Chimborazo) south to northwestern Peru (Tumbes, Piura, and northern Lambayeque).

See Detailed Description.

Related Species

Species fraseri traditionally was classified in the genus Basileuterus (e.g. Chapman 1921, Hellmayr 1935, Lowery and Monroe 1968). A phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data, from both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, demonstrated that the traditional, broadly defined Basileuterus was not monophyletic (Lovette et al. 2010). As a result, most species of "Basileuterus", including fraseri, were transferred to the genus Myiothlypis. Within Myiothlypis, fraseri is sister to Myiothlypis coronata (Russet-crowned Warbler). Although this relationship had not been anticipated by museum based ornithologists, it is no surprise to field ornithologists who had been aware of the similarity in vocalizations between these two species.

Recommended Citation

Schulenberg, T. S. and T. Johnson (2013). Gray-and-gold Warbler (Myiothlypis fraseri), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.