Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea melanonota) is unlikely to be confused with any other species within its wide range, Venezuela south to northwestern Argentina, and also from southern Brazil south to northeastern Argentina. This species primarily is found in bushy pastures, second growth, gardens, and forest edges. Taxonomy based on molecular systematics has recovered Fawn-breasted Tanager as sister to Blue-and-yellow Tanager (P. bonariensis), which was previously placed in the genus Thraupis. There are currently two recognized subspecies within Fawn-breasted Tanager, which appear to be geographically isolated. This species might actually be expanding its range in some areas due to deforestation. Fawn-breasted Tanager is almost always seen in pairs or individually, forages mainly on insects, and rarely joins mixed species flocks. Due to the Fawn-breasted Tanager's large, albeit disjointed, range it has not been placed on any threatened species lists. The generic name Pipraeidea was named by Linnaeus and comes from the Greek words "pipra" for small bird and "eidos" for likeness. The specific epithet melanonota comes from the Greek words "melas" for black and "nōtos" for back (Jobling 2010). The species is known by a variety of Spanish names including Cachaquito Viuva, Saíra de Antifaz, Tangará de Antifaz, Viuvá, Viuva de Antifaz, Chachaquito, and Tangara de Pecho Anteado (Lepage et al. 2014).