Endemic to Cuba, where widespread and common.
Dod (1978) reported a single sighting from the Dominican Republic (in Calimete, near Honda Valle, in 1968), after a hurricane that struck Cuba. No further details were reported, and Keith et al. (2003) consider Cuban Green Woodpecker to be of "uncertain occurrence" on Hispaniola. Lack (1976) mentions a second hand report of "two green woodpeckers" seen on the north coast of Jamaica in January 1957 that "could hardly have been anything except the Cuban endemic species Xiphidiopicus percussus", but no further documentation is available for this record.