Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis

  • Order: Accipitriformes
  • Family: Accipitridae
  • Monotypic
  • Authors: Jedediah W. Smith
Sections

Distribution

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  • Year-round
  • Migration
  • Breeding
  • Non-Breeding
Distribution of the Crested Eagle
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eBird range map for Crested Eagle

Generated from eBird observations (Year-Round, 1900-present)

Distribution in the Americas

Crested Eagle occurs from Central America south to south central South America, although the range is not continuous. It occurs from northern Guatemala south through southern Belize to northern Honduras (Ellis and Whaley 1981, Howell and Webb 1995, A.O.U. 1998, Jones et al. 2000, Grijalva and Eisermann 2006). There are no specimen records from Nicaragua (Martínez-Sánchez and Will 2010), but there are several sight records from eastern Nicaragua (Martínez-Sánchez 2007). There are no confirmed records for Mexico, but Howell and Webb (1995) suggest that it may occur in southern Chiapas and southern Campeche. Crested Eagle is local in Costa Rica, with recent records from the northern Caribbean slope and the southern Pacific slope (Stiles and Skutch 1989), and along the entire Caribbean slope of Panama (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989); the distribution on the Pacific slope of Panama is discontinuous (Rigdely and Gwynne 1989).

The distribution extends south along the Pacific slope of Colombia to northwestern Ecuador (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a). Crested Eagle also occurs from eastern Colombia east through Venezuela to the Guianas, and south through Amazonia to Bolivia (Snyder 1966, Hilty and Brown 1986, Tostain et al. 1992, Braun et al. 1997, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a, Hilty 2003, Hennessey et al. 2003, Schulenberg et al. 2007, Ottema et al. 2009). Also occurs in the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil, although greatly diminished in numbers there (Sick 1993).

Crested Eagle is restricted to the lowlands in most of its range (e.g., to 500 m in northern Central America, Howell and Webb 1995; below 600 m in Colombia, Hilty and Brown 1986), but locally occurs higher; there are records up to 1800-2200 m in northwestern Ecuador (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001a), and it occurs, locally, to as high as 1100 m in Peru (Parker and Parker 1982, Schulenberg et al. 2010).

Distribution outside the Americas

Endemic to the Americas.

Habitat

In general, Crested Eagle occurs in tropical to subtropical zones in intact forests (Brown and Amadon 1968, Bierregaard 1984,Sick 1993). It exists in the most humid parts of contiguous, mature forest (Wetmore 1965). It prefers to be near the coast or rivers (Brown and Amadon 1968).

Historical changes

Crested Eagle has experienced substantial habitat loss and also has suffered from hunting pressure; in many parts of its range the population has declined significantly in recent decades. Crested Eagle also has disappeared completely or almost completely from some regions that it formerly occupied, such as most of the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica (Stiles and Skutch 1989), and the Atlantic forests of Brazil (Sick 1993, Galetti et al. 1997).

Crested Eagle has also experienced declines in Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Honduras, likely also due to habitat loss and degradation (Wetmore 1965, but has not been seen on the island since 1950 (Robinson 1999).

Fossil history

No information.

Recommended Citation

Smith, J. W. (2012). Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/nb.creeag1.01